„This agreement partly defines the relationship between these two parties, for example. B in the provisions relating to the recognition of the union as the exclusive representative of workers in the collective agreement unit or the handling of the settlement of contractual disputes in the context of an appeal procedure. Mandatory Bargaining Issues Although the parties do not have to negotiate on all possible issues, they must negotiate in good faith binding bargaining issues, including wages, hours and other „conditions of employment“ (29 U.S.C.A. As these mandatory issues are very broad, the courts have tried over the years to establish standards to determine whether a particular topic of negotiation is mandatory. In general, the terms of employment cover only issues that „govern one aspect of the relationship between the employer and the workers“ (Allied Chemical – Alkali Workers of America v. Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., 404 U.S. 157, 92 p. Ct. 383, 30 L.
Ed. 2d 341 ). Collective bargaining is the process of negotiating terms and conditions between an employer and a group of workers. Conditions of employment likely include issues such as conditions of employment, working conditions and other employment rules, base wages, overtime pay, hours of work, working time, work leave, sick leave, leave, pensions and health care. Once the NRL has certified a union as an exclusive bargaining partner, the union has an irrefutable presumption of one-year majority support (River Dyeing – Finishing Corp. v. NLRB, 482 U.S. 27, 107 S. 2225, 96 L. Ed. 2d 22 ). This year, the employer must not refuse to negotiate with the union because the union does not represent a majority of workers.
At the end of this year, the employer may refute the presumption that the union represents the majority of workers, by showing either that the union does not have majority support, or that the employer doubts in good faith that the union has lost the majority (NLRB/Curtin Matheson Scientific, 494 U.S. 775, 110 S. Ct. 1542 , 108 L Ed. 2d 801 ). In cases where the employer doubts that a union is a majority, the employer may „proactively withdraw“ the union`s recognition by insisting on a collective agreement that ends at the end of the certification year (Rock-Tenn Co. v. NLRB, 69 F.3d 803 [7. Cir.
1995]). The union may negotiate with a single employer (who usually represents a company`s shareholder) or with a group of companies, depending on the country, in order to reach an industry-wide agreement. A collective agreement functions as an employment contract between an employer and one or more unions. Collective bargaining is conducted in negotiations between union representatives and employers (usually represented by management or, in some countries such as Austria, Sweden and the Netherlands, by an employers` organisation) on the conditions of employment of workers, such as wages, working time, working conditions, redress procedures and trade union rights and obligations. The parties often refer to the outcome of the collective agreement or collective agreement (AEC) negotiation. The Court found that the agency shop clause is valid when the fees are used by the union for „collective bargaining, contract management and complaint adjustment.“ In Sweden, about 90% of employees are subject to collective agreements and 83% in the private sector (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden does not have legislation on minimum wages or legislation extending collective agreements to disorganised employers.