Think, for example, of employment contracts. As we have already noted in our recent article on employment contracts, „an employment contract should in any case cover the obligations of the work performed, the amount of payment and the method of payment, all specific requirements for both parties and all property rights over the work produced by the employee“. Contracts have the power to protect you by limiting your liability, which is crucial when things (God forbid, but you never know) suddenly start hitting runners. Your professional fortune is made up of many aspects, and property, both physical and intellectual, eats a large part of this precious pie. Intellectual property is an area particularly vulnerable to different interpretations, often missing, so be sure to protect it through a carefully designed contract. The common law doctrine of law having contractual effect provides that only those who are parties to a contract may continue or continue it.   The main case of Tweddle v. Atkinson   immediately showed that doctrine had the effect of opposing the intentions of the parties. In Law of the Sea, Scruttons v Midland Silicones   and N.Z. Shipping v Satterthwaite  explained how third parties could obtain protection from limitation clauses within a snubbing category.
Some common law exceptions such as agency, assignment, and negligence circumvented property rules, but the unpopular doctrine remained intact until it was amended by the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, which provides as follows: A provision may be express or implied.  An explicit time limit is indicated by the parties during the trial or in writing in a contractual document. The implied conditions are not specified, but nevertheless constitute a provision of the contract. An English common law concept, consideration is necessary for simple contracts, but not for special contracts (contracts by title). In Currie v. Misa , the court stated that consideration was a „right, interest, profit, advantage or abstention, disadvantage, loss, liability“. Thus, consideration is a promise of something of value given by a celebrity in exchange for something of value given by a promise; and generally, the question of value is a good, money or a stock. Acting with leniency, like an adult who promises not to smoke, is only enforceable if you waive a legal right.    However, in both the European Union and the United States, the need to prevent discrimination has undermined the full extent of freedom of contract […].